AN ESTIMATED 5 MILLION PEOPLE HAVE ACCESS TO APPROPRIATE HEALTHCARE GLOBALLY THANKS TO REVENUES FROM DIAMONDS.
Revenues from diamonds have enabled governments and health organizations to greatly improve existing public health services and provide new health services to those who have never had them before. Diamond revenues have funded more hospitals, more medical centers and more hospices, ensuring healthcare is extended to millions of people.
Diamond-funded health projects extend beyond just building hospitals. Debswana, a mining company in Botswana, recently became the first mining company in the world to extend free anti-retroviral treatment (ART) to HIV positive employees, their life partners, their children, and former employees for life.
CONFLICT DIAMONDS HAVE BEEN REDUCED FROM APPROXIMATELY 4% TO CONSIDERABLY LESS THAN 1% SINCE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS IN 2003.
In 2000, governments, NGOs and the diamond industry recognized the need to put a process in place to prevent conflict diamonds - or what some call "blood diamonds" - from entering the legitimate diamond supply chain, therefore ensuring diamonds were not used to fund conflict. They agreed on a simple system called the 'Kimberley Process.' Under this system, rough diamonds are sealed in tamper-resistant containers and accompanied by forgery resistant, conflict free certificates with unique serial numbers each time they cross an international border. This was enshrined into national law in the participants' countries in 2003. In 2004, the Chair of the Kimberley Process announced that considerably less than 1% of diamonds are conflict diamonds, reduced from approximately 4% before the establishment of the Kimberley Process. While this is an improvement, it is still not enough. The diamond industry will not rest until conflict diamonds are eradicated completely.
Decreasing the trade in conflict diamonds in a diamond-producing country minimizes the ability of rebels to fund violence. By allowing only legitimately sourced diamonds to be traded, revenues from these diamonds can then be used to benefit the people of that country. Today, more than 99% of diamonds traded internationally are from conflict free sources. Revenues from these legitimately sourced diamonds contribute significantly to the economies, healthcare systems, education and other infrastructure developments in some of the countries where they are found.
AN ESTIMATED 10 MILLION PEOPLE GLOBALLY ARE DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY SUPPORTED BY THE DIAMOND INDUSTRY.
From the countries where they are sourced to the countries where they are polished and sold, diamonds are supporting millions of people globally. In the African country of Namibia, the diamond mining industry is the largest single employer after the government. In Botswana approximately 25% of the labor force is directly or indirectly linked to diamonds. In India approximately one million people are employed in the diamond industry. In 2002, approximately 15% of total employment in the Canadian Northwest Territories was related to diamond mine operation and construction.
THE DIAMOND MINING INDUSTRY GENERATES OVER 40% OF NAMIBIA'S ANNUAL EXPORT EARNINGS.
As one of Namibia's major natural resources, diamonds have created approximately 3,200 jobs and contribute approximately 10% of GDP. They are bringing real improvement to the daily lives of Namibia's people, providing essentials such as school books and electricity. The diamond industry and Namibian Government have partnered to create local cutting and polishing industries to further expand the country's economy and provide revenues for more families and communities in Namibia.
DIAMOND REVENUES ENABLE EVERY CHILD IN BOTSWANA TO RECEIVE FREE EDUCATION UP TO THE AGE OF 13.
Many African countries do not have sufficient tax revenues to pay for public education, unlike countries in many other parts of the world. Most African governments therefore need to charge students and their families for education. Botswana, with the help of diamond revenues, is one of the exceptions.
When diamonds were discovered in Botswana in 1966, there were only three secondary schools; today, due to revenues from diamonds, there are more than 300. Where children 40 years ago had no access to schooling or received lessons in the open air, they now have classrooms, sports equipment and books. Free schooling starts for children as young as six years old and continues throughout primary education. Even after the age of 13, secondary education is 95% funded by the government, enabling children to stay in school longer. The goal is to improve personal development and literacy rates that will pave the way for future generations.
IN JULY 2000, THE GLOBAL DIAMOND INDUSTRY ANNOUNCED ITS ZERO-TOLERANCE POLICY TOWARDS CONFLICT DIAMONDS AND CONTINUES TO DRIVE THIS POLICY.
In 2000, at the World Diamond Congress in Antwerp, the international diamond industry created the World Diamond Council and announced the industry's zero tolerance policy towards conflict diamonds. The World Diamond Council worked to help create and implement the Kimberley Process, and is still working to support and improve it. In addition and in keeping with the industry's determination to eradicate conflict diamonds, the World Diamond Council and its members agreed to provide assurance-to all purchasers up to final sale-that the diamonds being sold were from conflict free sources. This assurance, called the 'System of Warranties,' involves a written statement on all invoices declaring that, to the best of the supplier's knowledge, the diamonds are from conflict free sources.
While the number of conflict diamonds has been reduced from approximately 4% to significantly less than 1%, it is still not enough. The diamond industry continues to work towards eliminating conflict diamonds entirely.
SIERRA LEONE IS NOW AT PEACE AND EXPORTED APPROXIMATELY $125 MILLION DIAMONDS IN 2006.
"Countries such as Sierra Leone and Angola...need revenue from diamonds if they are ever to recover from conflict and achieve peace. These legitimate diamonds will now help to bring prosperity to the people of Sierra Leone," said Alhaji Deen, Sierra Leone Minister of Mineral Resources.
Between the years of 1991 and 2002, Sierra Leone descended into a violent civil war. In 2000, the United Nations Security Council banned both direct and indirect imports of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone to member states.
When the war ended, Sierra Leone became a democratic country. Since then, the diamond industry has provided technical assistance and training to Sierra Leone's Ministry of Mines in setting up the Government Diamond Office. In 2003 Sierra Leone joined the Kimberley Process, the international agreement developed to prevent conflict diamonds from entering the legitimate diamond supply chain, providing an assurance that diamonds are from conflict free sources. That same year, the United Nations Security Council lifted the regulation regarding the export of diamonds from Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone is now using revenues from diamond exports to rebuild its infrastructure, health services and education systems.
Companies mining diamonds in Sierra Leone include Koidu Holdings and African Diamonds plc. Koidu Holdings is an example of the positive social impact that a legitimate company working in cooperation with the government can make. The company has pledged to share 20% of its profits with the national social safety net and the local community where it mines. While these contributions are important, they are just the start to rebuilding this country. As additional organizations invest in diamond mining in Sierra Leone, they will continue to help this previously war-torn country make significant strides towards social and economic prosperity.
APPROXIMATELY ONE MILLION PEOPLE ARE EMPLOYED BY THE DIAMOND INDUSTRY IN INDIA.
The diamond industry has witnessed incredible growth in India in the last few years, lifting hundreds of thousands of people out of rural poverty into employment. Today, 9 out of 10 diamonds are polished in India. The knowledge and expertise of the diamond industry's highly skilled workforce has made India one of the key contributors to the growth of diamond jewellery worldwide. The diamond industry in India has also been a key contributor to the annual growth of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).
APPROXIMATELY $8.5 BILLION WORTH OF DIAMONDS A YEAR COME FROM AFRICAN COUNTRIES.
As Nelson Mandela said in 1999, "The diamond industry is vital to the southern African economy."
Between the years of 1991 and 2002, Sierra Leone descended into a violent civil war. In 2000, the United Nations Security Council banned both direct and indirect imports of rough diamonds from Sierra Leone to member states.
The approximate breakdown of diamond production by value within Africa is:
- Botswana: $3.3 billion
- Angola: $1.5 billion
- South Africa: $1.5 billion
- Democratic Republic of Congo: $0.7 billion
- Namibia: $0.9 billion
- Other African nations: $0.6 billion
The revenues from diamonds sourced in Africa are benefiting the countries in which they are found. These benefits take the form of funding hospitals for the sick, schools for children and infrastructure, such as roads, telephones and clean water systems, for everyone. Additionally, diamonds from some African countries are helping to fund the fight against HIV/AIDS through counseling, testing, education, treatment programs, clinics and hospices.
Please note that data is rounded to 1 decimal place and will therefore be subject to rounding errors.
MORE THAN 99% OF DIAMONDS ARE NOW FROM CONFLICT FREE SOURCES AND TRADED UNDER THE UN-MANDATED KIMBERLEY PROCESS.
In 2004, the Canadian Government, as chair of the Kimberley Process, cited that 99.8% of the world's rough diamonds are certified to be from sources not involved in funding conflict. The Kimberley Process requires that each time a rough diamond is traded, it is accompanied by a certificate with a legally binding guarantee that it is from a conflict free source. Participant countries or diamond traders that do not comply with the Kimberley Process are breaking the law. As of November 2006, 71 countries were members of this system that ensures that conflict diamonds are ring-fenced and as such, unable to enter the diamond supply and be used to fund conflicts. When any concerns arise regarding a country's adherence to the Kimberley Process, they are investigated and dealt with at an inter-governmental level.
THE DIAMOND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVE WAS ESTABLISHED TO IMPROVE THE WORKING CONDITIONS OF ARTISANAL MINERS.
The Diamond Development Initiative (DDI) aims to find sustainable methods of ensuring that diamonds are mined and distributed for the benefit of local communities and local governments. Unlike the more traditional, or formal, mines found in South Africa, Botswana and Namibia, small-scale informal alluvial diamond digging (also known as artisanal diamond digging) is usually undertaken by individuals, families or groups using very basic equipment to extract diamonds.
Most artisanal digging takes place around areas of alluvial deposits (deposits of sand, gravel and clay, which have been naturally transported by water erosion and deposited along either the banks of a river, the shoreline or on the bed of the ocean). There are a number of issues concerning the working conditions of small-scale informal diamond diggers. Among these are the unhealthy, unregulated and sometimes dangerous environments in which diggers work, together with the fact that the majority of diggers do not know the true value of rough diamonds and are therefore vulnerable to exploitation. In many cases the workers have no other option for employment and support a whole family on the substance wage given. The situation alluvial miners face today reflect the fundamental challenges of extreme poverty and a lack of basic infrastructure, education and healthcare in previously war-torn countries.
Founded through partnerships with governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the diamond industry, the DDI seeks to improve conditions and systems for artisanal alluvial digging and build on the foundations established by the Kimberley Process. Its aim is to develop an understanding of the issues and implement pilot projects in local small-scale informal alluvial diamond digging communities to address concerns e.g. working conditions, fair-pricing and formalization.
Together with other similar programs such as the Mwadui Community Diamond Partnership, the Peace Diamond Alliance, Diamonds for Development and the Communities and Small Scale Mining project of the World Bank, a real and lasting difference can be made to the approximately one million individuals and their dependents who make their living in the artisanal mining sector.
THE REVENUE FROM DIAMONDS IS INSTRUMENTAL IN THE FIGHT AGAINST THE HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC.
Diamonds play a significant role in helping to tackle the HIV/AIDS pandemic in southern Africa. Revenues from diamonds help to provide necessary counseling, testing, education, treatment programs, clinics and hospices, along with homes and care for children orphaned through this disease. Several diamond mining companies were among the first in southern Africa to provide free Anti Retroviral Treatment (ART) to employees and their life partners as part of a comprehensive program outside of medical insurance coverage.
The Global Business Coalition (GBC) has recognized and awarded these efforts. The GBC's mission is to unite businesses in the fight against HIV/AIDS. In the last three years, it grown to over 200 companies worldwide.
UNDER THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS, ROUGH DIAMONDS CAN ONLY BE EXPORTED AND IMPORTED WHEN ACCOMPANIED BY A CERTIFICATE FROM THE EXPORTING COUNTRY.
By law, no rough diamonds are permitted to enter a Kimberley Process participant country without a certificate. The Kimberley Process stipulates that all rough diamonds are sealed in tamper-resistant containers and must have forgery resistant conflict free certificates with unique serial numbers, each time they cross an international border. Any individual importing or exporting rough diamonds between Kimberley Process participants without a certificate is breaking the law and will be prosecuted by the appropriate government.
The number of conflict diamonds has been reduced from approximately 4% to significantly less than 1%. However, the diamond industry will not rest until that number reaches zero.
THE CHARITY JEWELLERS FOR CHILDREN FUNDS A COMMUNITY BASED CARE PROGRAM FOR ORPHANED CHILDREN IN SOUTH AFRICA.
Jewelers For Children (JFC), formerly known as the Jewelers Charity Fund for Children, was founded in 1999 by the U.S. jewellery industry with the mission of helping children in need. Since its inception, JFC has donated over $23 million to US and international programs benefiting children whose lives have been affected by illness, abuse, or neglect. This nationwide success is due to the continuing generosity of jewellery trade organizations, jewellery and watch manufacturing companies, jewellery retail stores, individual jewellery professionals, and jewellery consumers.
In 2006, JFC provided $ 4.5 million in funding to charity partners, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Make-A-Wish Foundation of America, the National CASA Association, the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Make-A-Wish Foundation International, the Jason Program, the Association of Hole in the Wall Camps and the Starlight Starbright Children's Foundation.
In 2007 JFC contributed to the funding of a community center for the Isibindi project — a model of community-based care for children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS — a model which has been branded as best practice by the United Nations.
AN ESTIMATED 65% OF THE WORLD'S DIAMONDS COME FROM AFRICAN COUNTRIES.
The majority of today's diamonds are sourced from Africa, Canada, Russia, Australia and South America. When measured by value, Botswana is the biggest producer of diamonds in the world. Other African countries that produce diamonds and are Kimberley Process compliant include:
- Central African Republic
- Democratic Republic of Congo
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
Countries such as Angola, Sierra Leone and Liberia rely on diamonds, as a major natural resource, to benefit their populations. In these countries, the revenues from diamonds play a pivotal role in helping to build hospitals, provide education and build infrastructure. Revenues from diamonds from some African countries are also being used in their fight against HIV/AIDS.
Revenue from diamonds has an increased importance in helping previously war-torn countries establish economic stability. Countries such as Angola, Sierra Leone and Liberia are now at peace and starting to use revenues from rough diamond exports to rebuild their economies and infrastructures.
TODAY, 74 GOVERNMENTS AND THE LEGITIMATE DIAMOND INDUSTRY ARE ALL COMMITTED AND LEGALLY BOUND TO ERADICATING CONFLICT DIAMONDS.
A committed working partnership including the governments of South Africa, Botswana and Namibia, Global Witness, Partnership Africa Canada, the World Diamond Council, De Beers and the United Nations was instrumental in establishing the Kimberley Process. By 2002, 52 governments had ratified and adopted the Kimberley Process. Since then, this number has increased gradually and today stands at 74 countries globally. The Kimberley Process is a simple intergovernmental process where rough diamonds are sealed in tamper-resistant containers and required to have forgery resistant, conflict free certificates with unique serial numbers each time they cross an international border. Today more than 99% of diamonds are now from conflict free sources and traded under the UN-mandated Kimberley Process. While the number of conflict diamonds has been reduced from approximately 4% since the establishment of the Kimberley Process to significantly less than 1%, it is still not enough. The diamond industry will not rest until conflict diamonds are eradicated completely.
THE DIAMOND INDUSTRY HAS INTRODUCED A SYSTEM TO HELP GIVE CONSUMERS REASSURANCE THAT THEIR DIAMOND IS FROM A CONFLICT FREE SOURCE.
Each time a rough diamond is traded across international borders, it is accompanied by a legally binding guarantee—on a government validated certificate—which certifies it is from a source free of conflict. This is called the Kimberley Process. Participant countries or diamond traders that do not comply with the Kimberley Process are breaking the law.
To make the diamond pipeline even more transparent, the international diamond industry and its members initiated a system of assurance to all purchasers, up to and including jewelry retailers, that the diamonds being sold are from sources free from conflict. This written statement on all invoices declaring that the diamonds are from conflict free sources is referred to as the 'System of Warranties'. Consumers should ask their retailer if they have this system in place. The World Diamond Council has been running a global campaign to request everyone in the diamond and jewelry industries adopt this system so that consumers can be assured that the diamonds they buy contribute to Africa's prosperity, not violence.
DIAMONDS ACCOUNT FOR 33% OF THE GDP (APPROXIMATELY $3.3 BILLION) OF BOTSWANA. SINCE INDEPENDENCE IN 1966, THE YEAR BEFORE DIAMONDS WERE DISCOVERED IN BOTSWANA, GDP ANNUAL GROWTH RATE AVERAGED 7%.
As Festus Mogae, the democratically elected President of Botswana, said, "For our people, every diamond purchase represents food on the table; better living conditions; better healthcare; potable and safe drinking water; more roads to connect our remote communities; and much more." Over the past 25 years, Botswana has had one of the fastest growing economies in the world and diamonds are continuing to contribute to a sustainable future for Botswana.
Approximately 25% of the labor force in Botswana are directly or indirectly linked to diamonds, and this figure is set to rise. United in a common goal, the government of Botswana and the diamond industry are setting up local cutting and polishing industries to increase the country's share of the values added from diamonds, which will boost the economy further and directly benefit the people of Botswana. Training and equipping people from Botswana in skilled jobs is enabling long-term sustainable work for these individuals.
MAJOR WORLD LEADERS - INCLUDING NELSON MANDELA - HAVE CITED THE IMPORTANCE OF DIAMONDS TO THE LIVES OF AFRICAN PEOPLE.
In 1999, Richard Holbrooke, Former US Ambassador to the United Nations said, "Conflict diamonds represent only a small percentage of global production, and we applaud De Beers' efforts to reassure its customers that the stones they buy contribute to national wealth, not destruction. The purchase of a diamond from the Jwaneng mine in Botswana, for example, makes a contribution to the national development of Botswana."
In 1999 Nelson Mandela said, "The diamond industry is vital to the Southern African economy. Rather than boycotts being instituted, it is preferable that through our own initiative the industry takes a progressive stance on human rights issues."
In 2004, the democratically elected President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa said, "We know that diamonds are a valued source of employment, foreign exchange, tax revenue, new investments and play a positive role in enhancing the overall economic well being of countries and local communities."
In 2006, Festus Mogae, President of the Republic of Botswana said, "Mr. Speaker, the outstanding economic achievements I have just outlined would not have been possible without the revenue from diamonds. There can be no doubt, that diamonds have played a major part in the transformation of our country's fortunes and the lives of our citizens."
"For our people, every diamond purchase represents food on the table; better living conditions; better healthcare; potable and safe drinking water; more roads to connect our remote communities; and much more."
The mining sector, of which diamonds are a large part, accounts for 75% of Botswana's export earnings, about 50% of Government revenue and 37.5% of Gross Domestic Product. Revenue from diamonds has enabled Government to fund virtually 100% of basic education, provide virtually free health care, build the infrastructure that has supported our economic activity, and to fund 80% of the anti-retroviral drugs that have given hope to our fellow citizens living with HIV/AIDS."
IT IS ESTIMATED THAT ONE MILLION PEOPLE WORK IN THE INFORMAL (ARTISANAL) ALLUVIAL DIAMOND DIGGING SECTOR.
Informal or artisanal digging is small-scale mining on a subsistence basis undertaken by individuals, families and groups using the most basic equipment to extract diamonds. Alluvial mining extracts diamonds from deposits of sand, gravel and clay, which have been naturally transported by water erosion and deposited along either the banks of a river, the shoreline or on the bed of the ocean.
Diamonds are a vital natural resource for African nations as they help ensure people build a new and positive future. These benefits, however, are not always being realized in countries that are home to artisanal diamond digging. This type of digging is very labor intensive as it entails first removing the sand on river banks and then extracting and washing the gravel in order to find diamonds. There are a number of issues concerning the working conditions of small-scale informal diamond diggers. Among these are the unhealthy, unregulated and sometimes dangerous environments in which diggers work, together with the fact that the majority of diggers do not know the true value of rough diamonds and are therefore vulnerable to exploitation. In many cases the workers have no other option for employment and support a whole family on the substance wage given. The situation that many alluvial miners face today reflect the fundamental challenges of extreme poverty and a lack of basic infrastructure, education and healthcare in war-torn countries.
The diamond industry is committed to help find solutions that create fair-wages, build infrastructure and help redevelop countries that are home to small-scale informal alluvial diamond digging to use diamonds to bring real change to people's lives. The Diamond Development Initiative (DDI), founded through partnership between governments, NGOs and the diamond industry, sees organizations working together to pool their resources, experience and knowledge to improve the conditions concerning the production of rough diamonds in the alluvial mining sector and in some of the poorest countries in Africa.
SOME DIAMOND PRODUCING COUNTRIES ARE NOT KIMBERLEY PROCESS COMPLIANT.
As of November 2007, there were 74 members of the Kimberley Process. The Kimberley Process has the ability to sanction countries that fail to meet the standards required, and governments themselves may request the suspension of the Kimberley provisions in their countries to help ensure social stability. Currently, there is one diamond producing country — Ivory Coast — that is under a UN Security Council Resolution to prohibit the extraction and trade of diamonds.
At the 2007 Kimberley Process Plenary, held in Brussels, Belgium, the KP launched an initiative addressing the issue of rough diamonds from the Ivory Coast. This initiative, entitled The Brussels Initiative, will build on past actions by the Kimberley Process and the United Nations to prevent trade in conflict diamonds and promote peace and security in the region.
IN NOVEMBER, 2007, 74 GOVERNMENTS, LEADING NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS, AND THE WORLD DIAMOND COUNCIL AGREED ON MEASURES TO FURTHER STRENGTHEN THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS.
Kimberley Process Participants joined together on November 5-8, 2007, in Brussels, Belgium at their annual Plenary meeting. Some of the successes acknowledged at the Plenary included:
- The Republic of Congo met Kimberley Process criteria and was re-admitted to the system
- Liberia joined the Kimberley Process
- Turkey was welcomed as a new participant of the Kimberley Process
The efforts of the European Union as 2007 Kimberley Process Chair were recognised in bringing greater transparency to the Kimberley Process through the publication of diamond production and trade statistics.
The Plenary also successfully came to agreement on several important measures designed to strengthen the Kimberley Process which included:
- The endorsement of guidance on strengthening internal controls of Participants with rough diamond trading and manufacturing (known as the Brussels Declaration)
- The announcement of the Brussels Initiative which will enhance the control and monitoring of rough diamonds from the Ivory Coast
- The first round of peer review visits of Kimberley Process Participants was completed
- The first publication of diamond production statistics
- The Working Group of Artisanal Alluvial Producers (WGAAP) presented a matrix of challenges facing artisanal/alluvial producing countries to be used as a tool to help improve their internal controls
- The number of Kimberley Process Participants grew to 74, with the inclusion of Turkey, Liberia and the Republic of Congo
"We need to ensure that the Kimberley Process is both as effective and as credible as possible in order to protect the legitimate trade in diamonds."
Eli Izhakoff, Chairman, World Diamond Council
AT THE 2007 KIMBERLEY PROCESS PLENARY, THE INDUSTRY COMMITTED FUNDS AND RESOURCES TO ADDRESS CHALLENGES FACED BY COUNTRIES WITH A HIGH PREVALENCE OF ARTISANAL ALLUVIAL MINING.
It was agreed during the November, 2006 Plenary that the Kimberley Process would continue to cooperate and liaise with the United Nations and other organizations and initiatives, such as Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, the Diamond Development Initiative and international and local NGOs to address the governance, regulatory, social and development issues facing countries with artisanal diamond mining and develop closer partnerships with the communities affected and civil society at the local level. Angola was selected to lead the new Working Group on Artisanal Alluvial Production which will address issues of particular concern to alluvial/artisanal producers.
At the 2007 Plenary, the Working Group of Artisanal Alluvial Producers (WGAAP) identified challenges facing artisanal/alluvial producing countries which can be used to help improve their internal controls. To progress the activity of the Working Group the Plenary endorsed a number of proposals for the WGAAP.
Mr Karel Kovanda , Chair of the Kimberley Process said, "With the Brussels Initiative on Diamonds in Cote D'Ivoire, we believe there is a real possibility for the Kimberley Process to support a truly regional approach to diamonds in South Africa."
Mr Eli Izhakoff, Chair of the World Diamond Council said, "We in the diamond industry have said again and again 'even one conflict diamond is one too many' and the postion of the international industry is that of zero tolerance."
IN AUGUST 2007, TURKEY WAS WELCOMED AS A PARTICIPANT IN THE KIMBERLEY PROCESS.
With the admittance of Turkey into the Kimberley Process, the total number of participating nations has grown to 74. The requirements to become a Kimberley Process Participant include passing legislation that implements the minimum standards of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme which consists of:
- the establishment of an authority for the purpose of communication pertaining to the import and export of rough diamonds
- the development and implementation of a government-validated Kimberley Process Certificate
- the establishment of internal controls